**CBSE Improvement FAQ’S**to clear any more doubt or you may also want to know about

**Admit Cards**or may be about

**CBSE 10th Improvement Rules 2015**

Continue reading “CBSE 12th Improvement Exam Rules and Regulation | 2014-15”

Skip to content# Eduonline 24

## Posts

### CBSE 12th Improvement Exam Rules and Regulation | 2014-15

### hello to alllll

### IIT JEE Preparation Tips Tricks & Strategies

### What is IIT… A brief intro

### What To Do

### What Not To Do

### You’ll Need

### Subjects and Difficulty Levels

### Structure of the Exam

**Paper 1****Paper 2**#### Combined Preparation: JEE and Boards

#### Join Test Series

### Time Management

#### Correct Methodology

#### Month-wise Planning

#### Important Topics

#### Practice Makes Perfect

## Summary At a Glance

### CBSE CCE System and Examination Reforms 2013-14

## EXAMINATION REFORMS AND CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE)

##### New scheme of evaluation

##### How will the assessment be done ?

#### Marks and grades

#### Time Schedule and Weightage

#### SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT (SA)

#### GRADING SYSTEM

### Biology 11th & 12th All Full Forms (Abbreviations) – Most Viewed

### Number System | Binary | Hexadecimal | Roman | Fractions

## Types of Numbers

**Natural numbers**

*The counting numbers {1, 2, 3, …}, are called natural numbers. They include all the counting numbers i.e. from 1 to infinity.*### Whole numbers (w)

*They are the natural numbers including zero. Not all whole numbers are natural numbers, but all natural numbers are whole numbers.*### Integers (Z)

*Positive and negative counting numbers, as well as zero.*### Rational numbers (Q)

*Numbers that can be expressed as a fraction of an integer and a non-zero integer.*### Real numbers (ℝ)

*All numbers that can be expressed as the limit of a sequence of rational numbers. Every real number corresponds to a point on the number line.*### Irrational numbers

*A real number that is not rational is called irrational.*### Complex Numbers (C)

*Includes real numbers and imaginary numbers, such as the square root of negative one.*### Hypercomplex numbers (C)

*Includes various number-system extensions: quaternions, octonions, tessarines, coquaternions, and biquaternions.*## Number representations

### Types and Properties of Quadrilaterals (Quadrangles)

*A quadrilateral is a polygon with four sides (edges) or four vertices or four corners **it can also be called as a TETRAGON*

* *

## What are the properties of quadrilateral?

## What is a diagonal and what are adjacent sides?

## How many types of quadrilaterals are there in Geometry?

## What is a cyclic quadrilateral and what are its properties?

## And at last but not the least all types and properties of parallelogram, rhombus, square, rectangle, kite, oblong, trapezoid, etc.

**Properties of Quadrilaterals:**

**Important Terms Related to Quadrilateral:**

__Diagonals__:-

Where AD is the line segment joining two opposite vertices A and D

__Adjacent Sides__:-

__Adjacent Angles__:-

### Types of Quadrilaterals

### Concave Quadrilaterals

#### **1. Parallelogram**

*A parallelogram is a quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel and equal sides***Properties of Parallelogram **:-

** **

**2. Rhombus (Rhomb) {Equilateral Quadrangle**

*A rhombus is a parallelogram all of whose all four sides are congruent***Properties of Rhombus :-**

** **

**3. Rhomboid **

*A rhomboid is a parallelogram in which adjacent sides are of unequal lengths and oblique angles*

** ****Properties of Rhomboid :-**

** **

** **

**4. Rectangle [Equiangular Quadrangle]**

*A rectangle is a plane figure with four straight sides and four right angles *** **

**5. Square {Regular Quadrilateral}**

*A square is a rhombus whose all angles are right angles***Properties of Square :-**

** **

**6. Oblong**

*A oblong is a rectangle which has unequal adjacent sides.***Properties of oblong :-**

** **

**7. Kite**

*A kite is a quadrilateral whose two pair of adjacent sides are equal***Properties of Kites:-**

** **

**8. Trapezoid (Trapezium)**

** ***A quadrilateral with at least one pair of parallel sides is known as a trapezoid*

**Properties of Kites:- **

**Cyclic Quadrilaterals**

**Properties of Cyclic Quadrilaterals:**

**Summary**

Here is a list of all the properties of quadrilaterals that we have mentioned along with the classes of the quadrilaterals that possess those properties:

### Skill development vocational courses | CBSE to make students employable

where student directly meets with education

As you should already be knowing that this is one of the most popular, most searched and an evergreen post on this blog and on WWW as well.

I suggest you to visit **CBSE Improvement FAQ’S** to clear any more doubt or you may also want to know about **Admit Cards** or may be about **CBSE 10th Improvement Rules 2015**

CBSE Improvement Exam takes place succeeding year when you give class 12th board exams. The exam is same as regular board exams and you get a whole year to prepare for the improvement exam.

Continue reading “CBSE 12th Improvement Exam Rules and Regulation | 2014-15”

After a long tym i am writing on my blog. This is only due to the busy shedule i am having. There are a lot of lykes comments and visits for the blog. I am very glad to see this. I will try to reply for all the comments but it will take tym. I will be publishing some new posts on the latest trending topics and issues as well as i will edit older most visited posts such as improvent exam, entrance related issues, etccc.

I hope u enjoyyed the election season (some may b not) it is definite that namo will change the system but the question is will this change going to benefit us or not.

Actuallly mr. narendra damodar dad modi clean sweeped it shows the majority. But i think mr. AK sufferred due to the transfer of divided vote in between them and congress.

Lets uss see what happens next.

I hope u enjoyyed the election season (some may b not) it is definite that namo will change the system but the question is will this change going to benefit us or not.

Actuallly mr. narendra damodar dad modi clean sweeped it shows the majority. But i think mr. AK sufferred due to the transfer of divided vote in between them and congress.

Lets uss see what happens next.

IIT JEE is one of the most reputed as well as toughest engineering entrance exam as we all know it. It is the way to the IITs as well as many other institutions. A deep knowledge of the subjects mentioned in JEE syllabus is compulsory to clear this exam.

- Believe in yourself rather in others.
- Take breaks. Do not study all day. Read, play, enjoy with your friends. These will actually help in long term in keeping you relaxed and stress free.
- Eat healthy. Remember you need to stay healthy in order to study hard.
- Remember that you know yourself better than anyone else.
- Sleep properly, for 7-8 hours a day.
- You will need it. Make routine of every subject. This will help you in giving time go each and every subject. Start the preparation right after you pass class 10 boards.
- If you start late you may not be able to cover the entire syllabus properly.

- First of all DO NOT use too many reference books.
- DO NOT start new topics that you haven’t done before.
- Do not waste time on trying to solve a problem or question. Look for the solution in the answer booklet, understand and move on to the next one since time is of essence here.
- Never ever adopt your classmates method of studying. Generally students get influenced by their peers. Everyone is unique and you should study according to your comfort for best concentration.
- Always start from the basic concepts. Avoid cramming.
- Don’t look for solutions without attempting to get the right answer.
- Don’t keep your work pending. You might not be able to catch up later.
- But never leave any chances.Catch each and every opportunity so that you won’t be sad later.Work hard to your greatest extent, rest will be given to you.
- Don’t ignore school work, especially after the new rules are in place.
- Whatever happens, don’t take IIT-JEE too seriously. IIT is just a college. Even if you don’t get in as an undergraduate you shall have another chance to join as a post graduate student. Remember, missing out on IIT-JEE isn’t the end of the world.
- “Avoid looking at the questions asked in past IIT exams. Some students try to solve these questions to get an edge but this is not required if you have solved AIEEE papers and revised Class 12 syllabus well.
- Avoid writing lengthy solutions for problems — particularly while doing your preparations.
- Do not worry if the first two hours of the paper prove to be average for you. Make sure that you do well in the third hour. Your target should be to solve one-third of the paper to be able to make it to the top 1.5 candidates.

- Proper guidance
- Good books and study materials
- Motivation

Clearing JEE (Main) is not a difficult task. “A systematic approach when preparing for it will help students crack it. In AIEEE 2012, mathematics and physics were definitely difficult as compared to AIEEE 2011. Chemistry was relatively simple. About 25% questions in the paper are easy, 50% are average and 25% are difficult. The cut-off for JEE (Main) is generally around 60% for NITs and IIITs,” says Ramesh Batlish, Noida centre head, FIITJEE.

According to Anand Kumar, founder, Super 30, Patna, “The tough chapters include probability, permutation and combination and integral calculus in maths; rotational dynamics and geometrical optics in physics; solid state and inorganic chemistry in chemistry; 3D images in engineering drawing; and logical reasoning in aptitude. Revision of the Class 11 and 12 syllabus and practising the last 10 years’ question papers of the AIEEE helps a lot. For logical reasoning, solving GRE questions is a good idea.”

This is a three-hour paper comprising three sections: part 1 – physics, part 2 – chemistry and part 3 – mathematics. There are 30 questions in each of three subjects; which are of objective type-multiple choice with single correct answer. In each section there are 30 questions of four marks each. One should be very careful as there is one-fourth negative marking for every question

This three-hour paper consists of part 1 – mathematics, part 2 – aptitude and part 3 – drawing. The mathematics section has 30 objective-type multiple choice questions with single correct option and one-fourth negative marking. In this part, the syllabus for mathematics includes common topics from Class 11 and 12 CBSE or state Boards. The aptitude section has 50 objective, multiple choice questions with four options and one-fourth negative marking.

The new selection system gives importance to Class 12 board marks as well, hence one must prepare for both the exams simultaneously. The student must practice all NCERT problems, while brushing up JEE concepts. But the last choice is yours.

For better preparation and to know where one stands, one can join a popular test series programme. These tests not only check an individual’s level of preparation for the JEE but also make aware of one’s command over the subject, strong and weak areas and writing speed.

While dealing with exam pressure, time management plays a crucial role. Plan and divide the time remaining aptly for the three subjects. You can prepare a chapter-wise and topic-wise revision schedule. It is recommended to create short notes, list all formulas and points to remember. This will help in quick revision at a later stage.

The correct approach for those taking the exam for the first or second (last) time is to stick to limited source and not refer to a numerous books and study material available in the market. The syllabus and paper pattern for JEE Main, JEE Advance and Board Exams are different. Identify your strengths and weaknesses and prepare accordingly.

Develop month-wise plan and break it into weeks. Initial about three to four months, one can focus on developing concepts for each chapter separately. March should be Kept for board exams, except for certain days when you can simultaneously solve previous year papers papers of AIEEE and IIT-JEE. April and May can be used to revise formulae and take mock tests. All three subjects: Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics are equally important, thus one must devote at least two to three hours to each subject on a daily basis. It’s the quality of time spent on self-study that matters, not quantity.

The syllabus of *Class 11* and *12* contribute about **45% and 55% **of IIT-JEE question papers, respectively. While preparing, put more stress on the following topics.**Mathematics:** Quadratic equations and expressions, complex numbers, probability, vectors, matrices in algebra; circle, parabola, hyperbola in coordinate geometry; functions, limits, continuity and differentiability, application of derivatives, definite integral in calculus.**Physics:** Mechanics, fluids, heat and thermodynamics, waves and sound, capacitors and electrostatics, magnetics, electromagnetic induction, optics and modern physics.**Chemistry:** Coordination chemistry and chemical bonding in inorganic chemistry, electrochemistry, chemical and ionic equilibrium, mole concept in physical chemistry and organic chemistry.

Practice as much questions as you can for JEE. Keep in mind the following tips while preparing:

- Study on a regular basis and proper sleep is must.
- Keep in touch with like-minded students to get that extra edge
- Problem-solving should be more qualitative than quantitative
- With the right attitude, even an average student can clear it successfully

- Always
**study in the morning**time and set a target to finish at least one chapter of every subject. - If you have any problem or question related to your subject try to
**watch YouTube**videos related to that topic or simply**Google it**. - In most of the books objective questions are given, if you have no special books for the jee main and jee advanced preparation try to solve these questions (given at the end of every chapter)
**Divide the time**into three times, always give a break to your mind and physique so that when you start again you will be fresh enough to understand your next topic. And manage it on your own way like you can attempt first mathematics, then chemistry, and at last physics etc.**Believe in yourself**. This is the first thing you should have that is a strong belief in yourself that you have the ability to become an IITian . Work hard. Someone has rightly said where there is a will, there is a way.**Work hard**. Try to give as much time as you can in understanding the topics being covered. Even if you are not feeling well for solving problems, read popular articles on the topics or*Wikipedia*pages related to the topics. Having a clear concept is more important than being able to solve problems.**Have a proper guidance**. A good and experienced teacher or coaching institute will generally be of help. They are familiar with the pattern of the examination, and the kind of effort that a student needs to put in. So joining a well reputed institute can make things easier for you.**Concentrate on each topic**. You should go through each chapter with a lot of concentration. If suppose you are unable to solve a problem choose another problem of the similar type. Try to understand the basics of each topic instead of solving all problems. Very often a thorough understanding of a few topics proves better than a superficial idea about all topics.**Revise**. Whatever is being taught to you in school or tuition immediately revise it once you’re back home. This will help you to keep in touch with all topics, since a lot needs to be covered in a short time.**Put in effort continuously**. Don’t lose your heart if you are unable to do something. You will have to work hard everyday till you reach your destination. The journey is not that easy but if u have strong determination you can do it with ease.**Have good study materials at your disposal**. Go for*HC VERMA*in physics and*NCERT*. Go for*arihant*publications for chemistry. For maths go for arihant and NCERT too. Plus, have a question bank of previous 34 years by arihant publications or FIITJEE archive. solve this and you will have a sharp edge over others.You need to work on Chemistry*O.P Tandon*also, it helps you a lot.**Manage your time**very efficiently, as the IIT JEE requires has a vast syllabus and has to be cover over a limited period of time.

**C** – Continuous **C** – Comprehensive **E** – Evaluation

Continuous stands for assessment of a student throughout the year, not just at the end of a term. It may be done formally or in an informal way using different techniques of evaluation .

Comprehensive takes care of assessment of all round development of a child’s personality. A child will be assessed not only in terms of his knowledge about a subject but his participation in other activities also. Broadly, we assess a child’s growth in two areas – Scholastic and Co-scholastic. The term Scholastic refers to those aspects , which are related to intellect or the brain. It is related to the assessment of learners in curricular subjects. It includes assignments, projects, practical etc.

As a part of this new system, student’s marks will be replaced by grades which will be evaluated through a series of curricular and extra-curricular evaluations along with academics. The aim is to reduce the workload on students and to improve the overall skill and ability of the student by means of evaluation of other activities. Grades are awarded to students based on work experience skills, dexterity, innovation, steadiness, teamwork, public speaking, behavior, etc. to evaluate and present an overall measure of the student’s ability. This helps the students who are not good in academics to show their talent in other fields such as arts, humanities, sports, music, athletics, etc.

A school session is divided into two terms: First term – April to September. Second term – October to March. Each term has two **Formative Assessments (FA)** and one **Summative Assessment (SA)**. Syllabus covered in the first term will not be included in the second term.

In CCE, the marks obtained in an exam are usually not revealed. However, equivalent grades, which would be deduced using a special method by the teachers during evaluation would be revealed. This is considered as a drawback since a child with 92 marks will get the same grade as the child with 100 marks and their talents cannot be recognized by anyone else other than their teachers. Though this system might have some drawbacks it instills this value that students need to compete with themselves to get a better grade and not with others. The grading system is as follows –

CGPA | Grade | Qualified? | Merited? |
---|---|---|---|

9.1-10.0 | A1 | Yes | Yes |

8.1-9.0 | A2 | Yes | Yes |

7.1-8.0 | B1 | Yes | Yes |

6.1-7.0 | B2 | Yes | yes |

5.1-6.0 | C1 | Yes | No |

4.1-5.0 | C2 | Upon upgradation | No |

3.1-4.0 | D | Upon upgradation | No |

2.1-3.0 | E1 | No | No |

1.1-2.0 | E2 | No | No |

First Term (40%)

- FA I – April to July 10%
- FA 2 – July to Sept. 10%
- SA I – End of Sept. 20%

Second Term (60%)

- FA 3 – Oct. to Dec. 10%
- FA 4 – Dec. to Feb. 10%
- SA 2 – End of March 40%

FOR STUDENTS PRESENT IN CLASS IX

Since we have only second term in hand, we will take the 40% weightage from WT I and Mid Year Examination.

FA 3 includes :

- WT 2
- Home work
- Class work
- Group Activity/Experiments
- Individual Activity

- FA 4 will be conducted on the similar lines.
- Syllabus for SA 2 (March 2010) is available on CBSE website and known to students also.

FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT (FA)

Formative assessment includes all types of tests, formal and informal. Assessment can be done during the teaching process or after completing a unit. It includes :

- Class work
- Quizzes
- Home work
- Worksheets
- Oral tests
- Assignments
- Group discussion
- Group activity
- Experiments
- Projects
- Conversation/Interview

The record of FA will be maintained by the class teacher and subject teachers.

This is the most traditional way of testing that is paper pen test based on the curriculum taught during the specified time period. The question paper of SA will be set by the CBSE.

The centre of examination will be the child’s own school. Answer sheets will be checked by the school teachers.

The performance of a child in scholastic area will be assessed in terms of marks. Marks will be known to the student but his report card will show grades only. Marks will be converted into grades as per following pattern :

Marks Range | Grade | Grade Point |
---|---|---|

91-100 | A1 | 10 |

81-90 | A2 | 9 |

71-80 | B1 | 8 |

61-70 | B2 | 7 |

51-60 | C1 | 6 |

41-50 | C2 | 5 |

33-40 | D | 4 |

21-32 | E1 | — |

00-20 | E2 | — |

Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), New Delhi has recently issued a teacher’s manual on CCE for class 9 and class 10. From the current session 2009-2010, this new scheme of (CCE) continuous and comprehensive evaluation is being implemented in class 9th and the same will be implemented in class 10th too from next session i.e. 2010-2011. CCE is a continuous and comprehensive evaluation that aimed at evaluating performance on the basis of end term examinations and on academics, co-curricular sports etc on a regular basis. In this new grading system, CBSE board will not conduct board exams for **class 10** and the school authorities will be issued a certificate of school as per the guidelines given by CBSE board.

The proposed Certificate of School Based Assessment will be divided into three parts:

**1. Part 1 will consist of Scholastic areas **

The academic performance of the learner in the classes 9th and 10th will reflect in the form of grades and percentile rank. During a year, two terms have been suggested, term 1 from April to September and term 2 from October to March for classes 9th and class 10th. Each term will carry two formative and one summative assessment. The grading scale for scholastic domain will be a nine point scale based on direct grading.

**2. Part 2 will comprise of co-scholastic areas which include Life-Skills and attitudes and values.**

A five point grading scale for assessment in Life-Skills and a three point scale for assessment in attitudes and values have been proposed.

**3. Part 3 consists of co-scholastic activities which include participation in Literary, Scientific, aesthetic and Club activities.**

Under this head , second sub-section includes Health and Physical Education. It is proposed that students will access on a three point scale in all these areas.

**Evaluation of Scholastic areas**

Each term will carry two Formative assessments and one Summative assessment for the evaluation of Scholastic areas.

**Formative Assessment:** Formative assessment is a tool that will be used by the teacher to continuously monitor student progress in a non-threatening as well as supportive environment. If used effectively, it can improve the performance of a student tremendously while raising the self esteem of the child and reducing the work load of the teacher. Some of the great features of Formative assessment are that it is diagnostic and remedial that provides effective feedback to students and allows for the active involvement of students in their own learning, enables teachers for adjusting teaching to take account of the results of assessment and recognizes the profound influence that assessment has on the motivation and self-esteem of students, both of which are crucial influences in learning. It is advisable that the school should not restrict the Formative assessment to only a paper-pencil test. There are other means of testing for e.g. through quizzes, interviews, conversations, visual testing, oral testing, projects, practicals and assignments. For the current year, there will be only two Formative assessments for **Class IX** for the (remaining) second term. It is advised that the Schools may conduct more than two such assessments and take the best two out of those. Assessments done periodically will be shown to the students or parents for encouraging continuous participatory improvement.

**Summative Assessment**: The Summative assessment is the terminal assessment of performance at the end of instruction. Under the end term Summative assessment, the students will be tested internally that will based on the following criteria:-

**a)** Curriculum and Syllabus for Classes IX will be the same as circulated by the **CBSE Board ** earlier. **b)** The Summative assessment will be in the form of a pen-paper test that is conducted by the schools themselves. It will be conducted at the end of each term. **c)**In order to ensure standardization, and to ensure uniformity, the Question Banks in different subjects for generating question papers will be forwarded by the Board to schools in March 2010. **d)** In order to cater to difference in the pace of responding, the Schools will give flexible timing to the students during end term Summative assessment. **e)** For the current year, there will be only one term end Summative assessment for the (remaining) second term to be conducted in March 2010 for Class IX students. **f)** Evaluation of answer scripts will be done by the school Teachers themselves on the basis of the Marking Scheme provided by the Board. **g)** There will be random verification of the assessments procedures carried on by schools by the Board officials/nominees appointed by the Board.

**The Weightage of Formative Assessment (FA) and Summative Assessment (SA) will be as follows:**

Term | Type of Assessment | Percentage of weightage in Academic session | Term – wise weightage | Total |

FIRST TERM (April – Sept.) | Formative Assessment I | 10% | Formative Assessment-1+2=20% | Formative = 40% Summative = 60% Total 100% |

Formative Assessment 2 | 10% | |||

Summative Assessment 1 | 20% | Summative Assessment -1=20% | ||

SECOND TERM (Oct. – March) | Formative Assessment 3 | 10% | Formative Assessment-3+4=20% | |

Formative Assessment 4 | 10% | |||

Summative Assessment 2 | 40% | Summative Assessment-2=40% |

However, considering that CCE has been introduced in middle of the academic year, it will only be implemented for the second term for **Class IX**. The schools have the choice to implement one of the following for this academic year:

In this post, you will find all high school biology short forms and their expansion. Many times they are asked in examination as “**S**hort **A**nswer **Q**uestions”. Sometimes in “**L**ong **A**nswer **Q**uestions” also you will find that they are extremely Useful.

**PMC**→ Pollen Mother Cell**MMC**→ Megaspore Mother Cell**PEN**→ Primary Endosperm Nucleus**PEC**→ Primary Endosperm Cell**IUDs**→ Intra Uterine Devices**MTP**→ Medical Termination of Pregnancy**STDs**→ Sexually Transmitted Devices**ET**→ Embryo Transfer**IVF**→ In Vitro Fertilization**ART**→ Assisted Reproductive Technologies**ZIFT**→ Zygote Intra Fallopian Transfer**PIDs**→ Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases**AI**→ Artificial Insemination**IUI**→ Intra Uterine Insemination**IUT**→ Intra Uterine Transfer**GIFT**→ Zygote Intra Fallopian Transfer**MOET**→ Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer**SCP**→ Single Cell Protein**LAB**→ Lactic Acid Bacteria**STPs**→ Sewage Treatment Plants**BOD**→ Biochemical Oxygen Demand**MALT**→ Mucosal Associated Lymphoid Tissues**CMI**→ Cell-Mediated Immunity**AIDS**→ Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome**NACO**→ National Aids Control Organisation**HIV**→ Human Immuno-deficiency Virus**CT**→ Computed Tomography**MRI**→ Magnetic Resonance Imaging**ELISA**→ Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbant Essay**PMNL**→ Polymorpho-Nuclear Leukocytes**AMI**→ Antibody Mediated Immunity**ICSI**→ Inta Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection**RTIs**→ Reproductive Tract Infections**ICBN**→ International Code for Botanical Nomenclature**ICZN**→ International Code for Zoological Nomenclature

**(ℕ)**

Decimal

The standard Hindu–Arabic numeral system using base ten.

Binary

The base-two numeral system used by computers.

Roman

The numeral system of ancient Rome, still occasionally used today.

Fractions

A representation of a non-integer as a ratio of two integers. These include improper fractions as well as mixed numbers.

Scientific Notation

A method for writing very small and very large numbers using powers of 10. When used in science, such a number also conveys the precision of measurement using significant figures.

Knuth’s up-arrow notation and Conway chained arrow notation

Notations that allow the concise representation of extremely large integers such as Graham’s number.

There are different types and varieties of quadrilaterals having different properties such as different angles and sides. You can learn them here in a very easy and informative way.

After reading this tutorial you can answer these questions like

-Four sides.

-Four vertices (corners).

-Interior angles sum to 360^{°}.

-Exterior angles sum to 360^{°}.

*Diagonals are line segments that join two opposite vertices of a quadrilateral (corners).*A quadrilateral can have maximum two diagonal

Where AD is the line segment joining two opposite vertices A and D

*Two sides are adjacent, if they share a common vertex.*

In the quadrilateral shown above the 4 pair of adjacent sides are:

- AD and DC
- DC and BC
- BC and AB
- AB and AD

*Two angles are adjacent, if they share a common side.*

In the quadrilateral shown above the 4 pair of adjacent angles are:

- ∠1 and ∠3
- ∠3 and ∠4
- ∠2 and ∠4
- ∠1 and ∠2

There are special types of quadrilateral:

Some types are also included in the definition of other types! For example a **square**, **rhombus** and **rectangle** are also ** parallelograms**.

A quadrilateral that contains a reflex angle.

- Opposite sides are congruent(i.e., Equal in length).
- Opposite angels are congruent(i.e., Equal in length).
- Consecutive angles are supplementary (i.e., Sum of consecutive angle = 180°).
- If one angle is right angle, then all angles are right angle(i.e., It is a square).
- The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other to form two pairs of congruent triangles.

- All four sides are congruent(i.e., Equal in length).
- Opposite sides are parallel(i.e., It’s a parallelogram).
- Opposite angels are congruent(i.e., Equal in length).
- Consecutive angles are supplementary (i.e., Sum of consecutive angle = 180°).
- The diagonals of a rhombus bisect pairs of opposite angles.
- If one angle is right angle, then all angles are right angle(i.e., It is a square).
- Four congruent triangles are formed by diagonals.

- All four sides are congruent(i.e., Equal in length).
- Opposite angels are congruent(i.e., Equal in length).
- Opposite angels are parallel(i.e., It’s a parallelogram).
- Consecutive angles are supplementary (i.e., Sum of consecutive angle = 180°).
- If one angle is right angle, then all angles are right angle(i.e., It is a square).
- The diagonals bisect each other to form two pairs of congruent triangles.

**Properties of Rhombus :-**

- Opposite sides that are congruent and parallel.
- Adjacent sides are of unequal length
- Consecutive angles are supplementary, and
- Diagonals bisect each other.

- The diagonals bisect each other and at right angle.
- The diagonals bisect its angles.
- Opposite sides parallel and congruent.
- All four angles square are congruent.
- All four sides square are congruent.
- The diagonals are congruent.

- Two sets of parallel lines meeting at right angles.

- Two sets of parallel lines meeting at right angles.
- Two disjoint pairs of consecutive sides are congruent by definition
**Note:***Disjoint*means that the two pairs are totally separate. - The diagonals are perpendicular.
- One diagonal is the perpendicular bisector of the other diagonal
- The main diagonal bisects a pair of opposite angles.
- The opposite angles at the endpoints of the cross diagonal are congruent.

- The bases are parallel by definition.
- Each lower base angle is supplementary to the upper base angle on the same side.

A **cyclic quadrilateral** **(inscribed quadrilateral)** is a quadrilateral drawn inside a circle so that its corners lie on the circumference of the circle

whose vertices all lie on a single circle. This circle is called the *circumcircle* or circumscribed circle, and the vertices are said to be *concyclic*. The center of the circle and its radius are called the *circumcenter* and the *circumradius* respectively. Other names for these quadrilaterals are **concyclic quadrilateral** and **chordal quadrilateral**, the latter since the sides of the quadrilateral are chords of the circumcircle.

(a) **the opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral sum to 180°**

i.e. a+ c = 180°

b + d = 180°

b + d = 180°

(b)** the exterior angle of a cyclic quadrilateral is equal to the interior**

opposite angle

i.e. e = c

opposite angle

i.e. e = c

Here is a list of all the properties of quadrilaterals that we have mentioned along with the classes of the quadrilaterals that possess those properties:

Property | Quadrilaterals | |

Orthodiagonal | Kite, Dart, Rhombus, Square | |

Cyclic | Square, Rectangle, Isosceles Trapezoid | |

Inscriptible | Kite, Dart, Rhombus, Square | |

Having two parallel sides | Rhombus, Square, Rectangle, Parallelogram, Trapezoid | |

Having two pairs of parallel sides | Rhombus, Square, Rectangle, Parallelogram | |

Equilateral | Rhombus, Square | |

Equiangular | Rectangle, Square |

Taking education a step further, the Central Board of Secondary Education (**CBSE**) has now introduced Skill Development in schools from standard 9 onward.

With its recent changes in curriculum, the Board has asked affiliated schools to start Skill development vocational courses. This will prepare students to handle challenges of the job market with ease.

CBSE has shortlisted some private institutes which offer special training programs for Skill development.

In order to take this initiative to a maximum number of students, CBSE has asked schools to tie up with these private institutes.

The list, drawn up by CBSE, includes 35 skill knowledge providers in 11 areas, including retail, information technology, security, automobile, banking and insurance, hospitality and tourism, mass media and media production, health and beauty, music production, design, and medical diagnostics.

CBSE Chairman,**Mr.Vineet Joshi** said, “This course is essential for students to excel and emerge successful in real life situations of work.

This course will give them basic information of a working environment as they graduate from school. Skilled manpower and right exposure will help students to attain the best positions in various organizations.”

The objective of introducing such a subject is to create a positive impact for the inclusive growth of students.

Students studying in CBSE-affiliated schools will be given a choice to opt for these competency-based skill courses along with the general academic subjects in order to enhance their skills in their chosen field.

Skill development courses will not only ensure**employment of students post school** but will also help them in **pursuing higher studies** in their favorite field due to the academic teaching given to them during this span.

With its recent changes in curriculum, the Board has asked affiliated schools to start Skill development vocational courses. This will prepare students to handle challenges of the job market with ease.

CBSE has shortlisted some private institutes which offer special training programs for Skill development.

In order to take this initiative to a maximum number of students, CBSE has asked schools to tie up with these private institutes.

The list, drawn up by CBSE, includes 35 skill knowledge providers in 11 areas, including retail, information technology, security, automobile, banking and insurance, hospitality and tourism, mass media and media production, health and beauty, music production, design, and medical diagnostics.

CBSE Chairman,

This course will give them basic information of a working environment as they graduate from school. Skilled manpower and right exposure will help students to attain the best positions in various organizations.”

The objective of introducing such a subject is to create a positive impact for the inclusive growth of students.

Students studying in CBSE-affiliated schools will be given a choice to opt for these competency-based skill courses along with the general academic subjects in order to enhance their skills in their chosen field.

Skill development courses will not only ensure