Table of Contents
- Table: Kingdom Division Approaches
- Table: 5 Kingdom Classification
- Table: 5 Division of Plantae
- Table: 5 Phylum of Animalia
- Table: 5 Classes of Vertebrata
Hierarchy of Biological Classification
Kingdom > Phylum (for Animals) / Division (for Plants) > Class > Order > Family > Genus > Species
|Classification of Kingdoms|
|Type of Classification||Proposed By||Kingdoms|
|Two Kingdom Classification||Carolus Linnaeus||Plantae and Animalia|
|Three Kingdom Classification||Ernst Haeckel||Plantae, Protista and Animalia|
|Four Kingdom Classification||Copeland||Monera, Protista, Plantae and Animalia|
|Five Kingdom Classification||RH Whittaker||Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia|
|Six Kingdom Classification||Carl Woese||Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia|
Five Kingdom Classification
Robert H. Whittaker (1969) proposed the 5 kingdom classification of organisms on the basis of their cell structure, mode and source of nutrition and body organisation.
|Cell Wall||May be present (Polysaccharide + amino acid)||Present in some||Present (chitin)||Present (cellulose)||Absent|
|Body Organisation||Cellular||Cellular||Multicellular / loose tissue||Tissue / Organ||Tissue / Organ / Organ System|
|Mode of Nutrition||Autotrophic (chemosynthetic or photosynthetic) or Heterotrophic (Saprophyte / Parasite)||Autotrophic or Heterotrophic||Heterotrophic (Saprophytes / Symbiotes)||Autotrophic||Heterotrophic (Holozoic / Saprophytic)|
|Examples||bacteria, cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), mycoplasma||unicellular algae, diatoms, protozoans||yeast, mushrooms||Plants||Birds, Fish, Mammals|
- Microscopic Organisms
- Some of these use appendages such as hair-like cilia or whip-like flagella for moving around.
- Many of them have the capacity to become multicellular organisms at certain stages in their lives.
- Some fungal species live in permanent mutually dependent relationships with cyanobacteria. Such relationship are called symbiotic.
- Lichens can be seen as the slow growing large coloured patches on the bark of the trees.
- The first level of classification among plants depends on whether the plant body has well-differentiated distinct components, then based on whether the differentiated plant body has special tissues for the transport of water and other substances within it, further classification looks at the ability to bear seeds and whether the seeds are enclosed within fruits.
- Plants are further divided into 5 divisions i.e., Thallophyta, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms.
4.1 Thallophyta (algae)
- Predominantly aquatic.
4.2 Bryophyta (amphibians of the plant kingdom)
- Plant body is differentiated into stem and leaf-like structures.
- Plant body is differentiated into roots, stem and leaf-like structures.
Thallophytes, Bryophytes and Pteridophytes have naked embryos (called as spores)
Reproductive organs of Thallophytes, Bryophytes and Pteridophytes are inconspicuous i.e., hidden reproductive organs called as cryptogamae whereas Gymnosperms and Angiosperms have well-differentiated reproductive tissues that ultimately make seeds are called as phanerogams.
4.4 Gymnosperms (gymno – naked & sperma – seed)
- Usually perennial, evergreen and woody.
4.5 Angiosperms (angio – covered) [flowering plants]
- The seeds develop inside an organ which is modified to become fruit.
- Plant embryos in seeds have structures called cotyledons (aka seed leaves).
- Angiosperms are further divided into
- Monocots: Plants with seeds having a single cotyledon.
- Dicots: Plants with seeds having two cotyledons.
Seeds are the result of the reproductive process. They consist of the embryo along with stored food, which serves for the initial growth of the embryo during germination.
|Five Division of Plantae|
|Differentiated plant body||No||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Specialised Vascular Tissue||Absent||Absent||Present||Present||Present|
|Seeds covered by fruits||No||No||No||No||Yes|
|Examples||Spirogyra, Ulothrix, Cladophora and Chara||Moss(Funaria), Marchantia||Marsilea, ferns, horse-tails||Pines such as deodar||All flowering plants, Tomato plant|
- Animalia is further divided into 10 Phylum i.e., Porifera, Coelenterata, Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca, Echinodermata, Protochordata and Vertebrata.
|Five Phylum of Animalia|
|Porifera||Asymmetrical / Radial Symmetry||No||Acoelomate||No||sycon, spongilla, euplectella|
|Coelenterata||Radial Symmetry||Diploblastic||Acoelomate||No||jellyfish, sea anemones|
|Platyhelminthes||Bilateral Symmetry||Yes||Acoelomate||No||planarians, liverflukes, tape worms|
|Nematoda||Bilateral Symmetry||Yes||Pseudocoelom||No||ascaris, wuchereria|
|Annelida||Bilateral Symmetry||Yes||Yes||No||earthworms, leeches|
|Arthropoda||Bilateral Symmetry||Yes||Yes||No||prawns, butterflies, houseflies, spiders, scorpions, crabs.|
|Mollusca||Bilateral Symmetry||Yes||Yes||No||snails, mussels|
|Echinodermata||Bilateral at larval stage||Yes||Yes||No||starfish, sea urchins|
|Protochordata||Bilateral Symmetry||Yes||Yes||Yes||balanoglossus, herdemania, amphioxus|
|Vertebrata||Bilateral Symmetry||Yes||Yes||Yes||fish, birds, humans|
5.1 Porifera (organisms with holes) [sponges]
- Non-motile animals attached to some solid support and mostly found in marine habitats.
- These are aquatic species, some of these lives in colonies (corals), while others have a solitary like-span (Hydra)
5.3 Platyhelminthes (flatworms)
- The body is flattened dorsiventrally i.e., top to bottom, which is why these animals are called flatworms.
- Either free living (e.g. planarians) or parasitic (e.g. liverflukes).
- These are very familiar as parasitic worms causing diseases such as elephantiasis (filarial worms) or the worms in the intestines (roundworm or pinworms)
- These animals are found in a variety of habitats fresh water, marine water and land as well.
5.6 Arthropoda (jointed legs) (largest group of animals)
- Open circulatory system i.e., blood doesn’t flow through blood vessels.
- Cockroaches have a 13 chambered heart.
- Open circulatory system and kidney-like organs for excretion.
5.8 Echinodermata (echinos – hedgehog, derma – skin)
- They are exclusively free-living marine animals.
- They also have a peculiar water-driven tube system that they use for moving around.
- They have hard calcium carbonate structures that they use as a skeleton.
- Protochordates might not have a proper notochord at all stages in their lives or for the entire length of the animal.
- Marine animals
Notochord is a long rod-like support structure that runs along the back of the animal separating the nervous tissue from the gut. It provides a place for muscles to attach for ease of movement.
5.10 Vertebrata (Pisces, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves, Mammalia)
- These animals have a true vertebral column and internal skeleton
|Five Classes of Vertebrata|
|Respiratory Organ||gills||gills in larva / lungs in most adults||lungs||lungs||lungs|
|Habitat||aquatic||both land & water||land||land||land|
|Blood Type||cold blooded||cold blooded||cold blooded||warm blooded||warm blooded|
|Offspring||lay eggs||lay eggs||lay eggs||lay eggs||produce young ones (exception: platypus, echidna)|
|Heart||2 chambered||3 chambered||3 chambered (exception: crocodiles-4)||4 chambered||4 chambered|
|Examples||fish||frogs, toads, salamanders||snakes, turtles, lizards, crocodiles||birds||Human, Cat, Bats, Rat, Whale|
5.10.1 Pisces (Fish)
- There are many kinds of fish, some with skeletons made entirely of cartilage, such as sharks and some with a skeleton made of both bone and cartilage such as tuna or rohu.
- They obtain oxygen dissolved in water by using gills and use a muscular tail for movement.
- These animals differ from the fish in the lack of scales, in having mucus glands in the skin, and a 3 chambered heart.
- They lay eggs with tough coverings and do not need to lay their eggs in water, unlike amphibians.
5.10.4 Aves (Birds)
- There is an outside covering of feathers, and two forelimbs are modified for flight.
- They have mammary glands for the production of milk to nourish their young ones.
The owner of Eduonine 24. He likes to create notes and write about various things happening in the Indian Education System.