Common Names of Important Chemical Compounds | SSC | IB | Railways

Common Names of Important Chemical Compounds | SSC | IB | Railways

Common or general name of chemical compounds are frequently asked in most of the competitive exams. In this post learn all the common names of important Chemical Compounds including the Vitriol, so that you don’t miss any question from this topic.

What are Chemical Compounds?

A substance formed from two or more elements chemically united in fixed proportions, is known as a Chemical Compound

In layman’s terms, when you mix 2 or more atoms (atoms are the substances, which can’t be divided further e.g., H, O, Na, etc.), a compound will be formed.

Let’s take an example. What will happen, when we will mix or combine Hydrogen and chlorine atoms? Let’s see

   H2 + Cl2 -> 2HCl

Explanation: When we combine Dihydrogen (or simply Hydrogen) with Chlorine, we get HCl or Hydrogen Chloride, which is a Strong Acid. Here HCl is a chemical compound.

What are Common Names?

There are two types of name, when we talk about names of chemical compounds i.e., Chemical Name or Scientific Name and Common Name or Popular Name. While Scientific or Chemical Names are those from which scientists or chemists identify a particular chemical, Common Names are the name of chemical compounds by which we call them in our day to day life.

Let’s take an example to understand them. What are the chemical names and common name of NaCl?

Well, it’s the common salt or simply salt. Chemically it is called as Sodium chloride.

A set of chemical symbols showing the elements present in a compound and their relative proportions is known as a Chemical Formula

Following are the most important chemical compounds, their chemical formulas and their common names, in alphabetical order.

Componds of Sodium (Na)

Common Name Chemical Compound Chemical Formula
Baking Powder Sodium bicarbonate NaHCO3
Borax Sodium tetraborate decahydrate Na2B4O7.10 H2O
Caustic Soda Sodium hydroxide NaOH
Washing Soda Sodium carbonate Na2CO3.10H2O
Table Salt Sodium chloride NaCl
Chile saltpeter Sodium nitrate NaNO3
Hypo Sodium thiosulfate Na2S2O3

Componds of Calcium (Ca)

Common Name Chemical Compound Chemical Formula
Bleaching Powder Calcium hypochlorite Ca(ClO)2
Chalk Calcium carbonate CaCo3
Gypsum Calcium sulphate dihydrate CaSO4.2H2O
Plaster of Paris Calcium sulphate hemihydrate CaSO4.1/2H2O
Quick Lime Calcium oxide CaO


Vitriol Chemical Compound Chemical Formula
Black vitriol Metal sulphate [Cu,Mg,Fe,Mn,Co,Ni]SO4·7H2O
Vitriol of argile / Vitriol of clay Aluminium sulphate Al2(SO4)3
Sweet oil of vitriol Diethyl ether CH3CH2OCH2CH3
Red vitriol Cobalt sulphate CoSO4·7H2O
Blue vitriol / Roman vitriol / Vitriol of Cyprus Copper sulphate CuSO4·5H2O
Vitriol martial / Vitriol of Mars Ferric sulphate Fe2(SO4)3
Green vitriol Iron sulphate FeSO4·7H2O
Oil of vitriol / Spirit of vitriol Sulfuric acid H2SO4
White vitriol Zinc sulphate ZnSO4·7H2O

The word vitriol comes from the Latin word “vitriolum” for “glassy“, as crystals of several metallic sulphates resemble pieces of coloured glass.

Other Compounds

Common Name Chemical Compound Chemical Formula
Chloroform Trichloro methane CHCl3
Dry Ice Solid carbondioxide CO2
Heavy Water Deuterium oxide D2O
Laughing Gas Nitrous oxide N2O
Magnesia Magnesium oxide MgO
Potash Alum Potassium aluminium sulphate KAl(SO4)2.12H2O
Sand Silicon oxide SiO2
Sugar Sucrose C12H222O11
Tear Gas Chloropicrin C10H5ClN2
T.N.T. Trinitrotoluene C7H5N3O6
Vinegar Acetic acid CH3COOH
Gammaxene Benzene hexachloride (Lindane) C6H6Cl6
Carborundum Silicon carbide SiC
Magnetite Iron oxide Fe3O4

Previous Year SSC CGL Questions

  1. What is the chemical formula of Baking Soda? – NaHCO3
  2. What is the chemical name of Chile saltpeter? – Sodium nitrate
  3. What is the chemical formula of Heavy water? – D2O
  4. Acetic Acid is another name for which of the following? – Vinegar
  5. What is the chemical name of gammaxene? – Benzene hexachloride
  6. What is the chemical formula of Washing Soda? – Na2CO3
  7. What is the chemical formula of Common Salt? – NaCl
  8. What is Carborundum? – Silicon carbide (SiC)
  9. What is the chemical name of hypo? – Sodium thiosuphate
  10. What is the chemical formula of POP? – CaSO4.(1/2)H2O
  11. What is the chemical name of magnetite? – Iron oxide
  12. What is the chemical formula of Laughing gas? – N2O

Common Names of Chemical Compounds in PDF

P.S.: Do you think we have missed any important compound? Feel free to comment it down

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